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Magical Cappadocia is a trove of natural and cultural treasures

  • Written by Deborah Stone
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A hot air balloon flight is one of the best ways to appreciate Cappadocia’s unique lunar landscape. Photo by Deborah Stone.
As I gaze at the lunar landscape below me, I wonder if I’ve landed on Mars or perhaps dropped into one of Dali’s surrealist paintings.

Picture a spectacular topography of vast plains and valleys, rolling hills, rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes.

Then visualize bizarre rock formations, or "fairy chimneys," in mushroom, pinnacled, capped and conic shapes, scattering the area and giving it an otherworldly appearance.

It’s easy to believe I’m on another planet. But, no, I’m in Cappadocia, a region that stretches across 1,500 square miles in central Turkey, about 200 miles south of Ankara, the capital.

And I’m seeing it from a bird’s eye perspective, as I float over the area in a hot air balloon.

It’s a magical experience that provides an unforgettable overview of this unique terrain.

At times, the balloon seems to hover so close to the fairy chimneys, you can almost reach out and touch them.

Up close, you can appreciate their formation – the result of volcanic eruption, earthquakes and the ongoing effects of erosion.

Then the balloon skims the tops of apricot orchards and scrub trees before appearing to head straight for a sheer rock wall.

At the last moment, with just inches to spare between our basket and the craggy edge, we gracefully rise over the lip of the canyon, just in time to watch a breathtaking, fiery sunrise.

Villages look like giant anthills and the formations remind me of drip sand castles at the beach.

It’s a clear day and the view stretches hundreds of miles to Mt. Erciyes and beyond. I don’t want the flight to end, but all too soon, we descend to our landing place and I make my less-than-graceful exit out of the balloon.

And now it’s time to move on and explore the area on terra firma.

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Castle-like rock formations, such as this one, served as natural fortresses for the Byzantine army. Photo by Deborah Stone.
Cappadocia has a lengthy history and cultural treasures abound, reminding visitors of the land’s colorful past. The region is littered with hundreds of caves, tunnels and complex underground cities, which were first created by pagan Hittites over 3,000 years ago.

Locals carved out their homes and churches in the soft volcanic rock or "tufa," and then created cities underground to protect and defend themselves against the various populations who came to claim this coveted, strategically located area.

When under siege, the community would roll a huge rock across the entrance to its subterranean fortress to seal it from the outside.

At the Goreme Open Air Museum, an extraordinary monastic complex dating back to A.D. 900-1200, you can see numerous rock hewn churches containing some very well preserved frescos, along with refectories, kitchens, storage rooms and more, all built into the rocks.

On the walls, there are wonderful examples of iconoclastic period art, when the depiction of living forms was forbidden, as well as representations of Byzantine-era painting.

You’ll note that the eyes of the saints are missing. Years ago, the locals, wary of the evil eye, scratched them out.

One of the most impressive underground cities you’ll find is Kaymakli.

This cavernous rabbit warren once sheltered 3,000 beleaguered Christians.

As you make your way through the maze of tunnels, be prepared to duck and crouch.

A low passage leads from the stables to eight subterranean levels, four of which are open to the public.

On display are churches with carved-out altars, wineries (rooms with basins cut into the ground), storage areas and kitchens.

Over 200 intact cities have been found beneath Cappadocia. Experts believe there are many more of these ancient time capsules waiting to be discovered.

If you haven’t gotten your fill of Cappadocia’s remarkable formations, head to the Valley of Devrent or the Pink Valley.

It’s famed for its animal shaped rocks and is akin to a sculpture zoo made by nature.

Let your imagination run wild as you pick out camels, seals, snakes and dolphins among this remarkable rosy-tinged moonscape.

And don’t forget to visit Valley of Pasabag, where you’ll find some of Cappadocia’s most striking fairy chimneys, with twin and triple mushroom-style rock caps.

A chapel and hermit’s shelter are built into one of the three-headed chimneys. Two natural castles, Ortahisar and Uchisar, also deserve mention. They are rock fortresses, honeycombed with caves and tunnels, which were once used by the Byzantine army.

These larger-than-life sculptures represent the region’s most prominent land formations and offer unparalleled views of Cappadocia’s magnificent panorama.

To complete your experience, opt to stay in one of the many cozy, comfortable cave hotels either in the upscale town of Urgup or in the backpacker haven of Goreme. You’ll feel a bit like the Flintstones of Bedrock! 

If you go:

For information about sights, activities and accommodations in Cappadocia: www.cappadociaturkey.net

For general information on travel in Turkey: www.tourismturkey.org

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